1. THE ENVIRONMENT

 

• In previous centuries environmental issues typically affected local areas and went untreated until they reached crisis proportions.

 

• The industrial revolution has provided us the new ability to overload the environment at a much faster rate and with greater damage. And, the results of the pollution are no longer contained in a local area.

 

• Most of the environmental problems arise because the products that are delivered back into nature are not in the forms they were in when originally extracted.

 

• The main sources of problems are,

1. extracting raw materials often results in damage to the environment.

2. purifying raw materials produces by-products, requires energy and other materials.

3. shaping materials into useful form also produces by-products, requires energy and other materials.

4. during the life of a product there is upkeep, maintenance and consumption.

5. at the end of a products life it must be discarded.

 

• There are three good strategies when dealing with the environment,

- use less (eliminates 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5)

- reuse when possible (eliminates 1, 2, 5)

- recycle (eliminates 1, 5)

 

• The most common sources of problems are emissions. Common types are,

- Air based exhaust

- Runoff to waterways

- Stored toxic dump

- Stored solids

 

• many countries and are starting or have already enacted laws aimed at reducing environmental problems.

Germany - requires manufacturers to accept back used products such as automobiles

California - a zero emissions law requires no emissions on new vehicle in future

 

• These issues are already being addressed as voluntary standards such as ISO 14000.

 

• There are a wide variety of agencies and organizations that influence environmental policies and practices.

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

EPA (Environment Protection Agency)

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health)

UL (Underwriters Laboratory)

CSA (Canadian Safety Association)

 

 

1.1 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA)

1.2 LEGISLATION

1.3 OCCUPATION SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA)

1.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

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