Solenoids are the most common actuator components. The basic principle of operation is there is a moving ferrous core (a piston) that will move inside wire coil as shown in Figure 4.1 A Solenoid. Normally the piston is held outside the coil by a spring. When a voltage is applied to the coil and current flows, the coil builds up a magnetic field that attracts the piston and pulls it into the center of the coil. The piston can be used to supply a linear force. Well known applications of these include pneumatic values and car door openers.


Figure 4.1 A Solenoid

As mentioned before, inductive devices can create voltage spikes and may need snubbers, although most industrial applications have low enough voltage and current ratings they can be connected directly to the PLC outputs. Most industrial solenoids will be powered by 24Vdc and draw a few hundred mA.

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