eBook: Automating Manufacturing Systems; with PLCs


A.20 T

T1 - a 1.54 Mbps network data link.
T3 - a 45 Mbps network data link. This can be done with parallel T1 lines and packet switching.
tap - a connection to a power line.
tare - the ratio between unloaded and loaded weights.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - a transport layer protocol that ensures reliable data communication when using IP communications. The protocol is connection oriented, with full duplex streams.
tee - a tap into a larger line that does not add any special compensation, or conditioning. These connectors often have a T-shape.
telnet - a standard method for logging into remote computers and having access if connect by a dumb terminal.
temperature - the heat stored in an object. The relationship between temperature and energy content is specific to a material and is called the specific heat.
temperature dependence - as temperature varies, so do physical properties of materials. This makes many devices sensitive to temperatures.
thermal conductivity - the ability of a material to transfer heat energy.
thermal gradient - the change in temperature as we move through a material.
thermal lag - a delay between the time heat energy is applied and the time it arrives at the load.
thermistor - a resistance based temperature measurement device.
thermocouple - a device using joined metals that will generate a junction potential at different temperatures, used for temperature measurement.
thermopiles - a series of thermocouples in series.
thermoresistors - a category including RTDs and thermistors.
throughput - the speed that actual data is transmitted/processed, etc.
through beam - a beam is projected over an opening. If the beam is broken the sensor is activated.
thumbwheel - a mechanical switch with multiple positions that allow digits to be entered directly.
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) - an image format best suited to scanned pictures, such as Fax transmissions.
time-division multiplex - a circuit is switched between different devices for communication.
time-proportional control - the amount of power delivered to an AC device is varied by changing the number of cycles delivered in a fixed period of time.
timer - a device that can be set to have events happen at predetermined times.
titration - a procedure for determining the strength of a solution using a reagent for detection. A chemical is added at a slow rate until the reagent detects a change.
toggle switch - a switch with a large lever used for easy reviews of switch settings, and easy grasping.
token - an indicator of control. Often when a process receives a token it can operate, when it is done it gives it up.
TOP (Technical Office Protocol) - a network protocol designed for offices. It was promoted in conjunction with MAP in the 1980s, but never became widely used.
top-down design - a design is done by first laying out the most abstract functions, and then filling in more of the details as they are required.
topology - 1. The layout of a network. 2. a mathematical topic describing the connection of geometric entities. This is used for B-Rep models.
torque - a moment or twisting action about an axis.
torus - a donut shape
toroidal core - a torus shaped magnetic core to increase magnetic conductivity.
TPDDI (Twisted Pair Distributed Data Interface) - counter rotating token ring network connected with twisted pair medium.
TQC (Total Quality Control) - a philosophical approach to developing quality methods that reach all levels and aspects of a company.
transceiver (transmitter receiver) - a device to electrically interface between the computer network card, and the physical network medium. Packet collision hardware is present in these devices.
transducer - a device that will convert energy from one form to another at proportional levels.
transformations - include translation, rotation, and scaling of objects mathematically using matrix algebra. Transformations are used to move objects around in a scene.
transformer - two separate coils wound about a common magnetic coil. Used for changing voltage, current and resistance levels.
transient - a system response that occurs because of a change. These effects dissipate quickly and we are left with a steady state response.
transmission path - a system component that is used for transmitting energy.
transport layer - an OSI network model layer.
TRIAC (TRIode Alternating Current) - a semiconductor switch suited to AC power.
true - a logic positive, high, or 1.
truth table - an exhaustive list of all possible logical input states, and the logical results.
TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) - a high speed for of transistor logic.
TTY - a teletype terminal.
turbine - a device that generates a rotational motion using gas or fluid pressure on fan blades or vanes.
turbulent flow - fluids moving past an object, or changing direction will start to flow unevenly. This will occur when the Reynold's number exceeds 4000.
twisted pair - a scheme where wires are twisted to reduce the effects of EMI so that they may be used at higher frequencies. This is casually used to refer to 10b2 ethernet.
TXD (Transmitted Data) - an output line for serial data transmission. It will be connected to an RXD input on a receiving station.

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