6. Drilling

• A very common operation that cuts cylindrical holes.

6.1 Types of Drill Presses

• General type of drill presses in use are,

Sensitive: typically belt driven, and the bit is fed by hand. There are a limited choice of speeds. A bench top machine

Vertical or Pillar: has a heavy frame to support a wider range of work. The table height is adjustable, and power speeds and feeds are available.

Radial Arm: For very large and heavy work. The arm is power driven for the height location. The drilling head traverses the swinging arm. The workpiece remains stationary on the machine base, or work table. The machine spindle is moved to the location required.

• More specialized drill presses are,

Gang Type: several spindles/or stations are mounted on one long table

Multi Spindle: There are many spindles mounted on one head to allow many holes to be drilled simultaneously (e.g., up to 24)

Numerical Control Type: The machine can automatically change tooling with a turret or automatic tool changer. Speeds, feeds and table position are controlled using a computer program.

6.2 Typical Drilling Operations

• Counter Bores: Allows the head of cap screws to be sunk beneath a surface

 

• Spot Face: Allows the head of a bolt to be sunk beneath the surface. This is basically a shallow counter bore.

 

• Counter Sink: Allows counter sunk head screws to be sunk beneath a surface.

 

• Center Drilling: Allows parts to be mounted between centers, on lathes typically.

 

• Tapers Holes: these holes can be cut using reamers.

 

• Threaded Holes: Taps can be used to add threads to holes

 

• High tolerance finishes for holes can be made with boring or reaming.

6.3 Drill Bits

• The twist drill does most of the cutting with the tip of the bit.

• There are flutes to carry the chips up from the cutting edges to the top of the hole where they are cast off.

• Some of the parts of a drill bit are diagrammed below as viewed from the cutting tip of the drill,

 

• Some other features of the drill bit are shown below for a side view of the drill bit,

 

• Typical parameters for drill bits are,

Material is High Speed Steel

Standard Point Angle is 118°

• Harder materials have higher point angles, soft materials have lower point angles.

• The helix results in a positive cutting rake.

• Drill bits are typically ground (by hand) until they are the desired shape. When done grinding, the lips should be the same length and at the same angle, otherwise and oversized hole may be produced.

• Drill sizes are typically measured across the drill points with a micrometer

• Typical drill sizes are,

FRACTIONAL: 1/64” to 3 1/4” dia. in 1/64” steps

NUMBER: #1 = 0.228” dia. to #80 = 0.0135” dia.

LETTER: A = 0.234” dia. to Z = 0.413” dia.

METRIC: 0.4mm dia. to 50mm dia.

 

 

• Some standard drill types are,

Straight Shank: this type is held in a chuck

Taper shank: this type is held in a sleeve, and a machine spindle. A drift may also be used.

• Some other types of drills used are,

Core drills: a drill with a small helix, and 3 or 4 flutes. This is used for light drilling, such as opening holes in castings.

High helix: When drilling a deep hole in a soft material these drills are used to help remove chips

Straight fluted: Used to drill soft metals and plastics. The straight flutes prevent the bit from digging in.

Center drills: A drill with a small entry tip, and a widening profile. The result is a hole that has a conical shape on the outside, that may be used to mount the part between centers, or to act as a guide for a larger drill.

• Typically an allowance of a third of the drill bit diameter is given for the tip of the drill.

• Center Drill Sizes [Krar],

 

6.3.1 Reamers

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• Reamers are a special class of drill. They are used after a hole has been drilled near to final size. The reamers is then used to remove a small quantity of material, and finish the hole with a good surface texture, roundness, and alignment.

 

• These are often used to provide holes for bearings, parallel and taper dowels, and various fits with a shaft.

• These are typically made of High Speed Steel, or with carbide tips.

• The main body contains many straight and helical flutes. The tip does not contain any cutting edges.

• Various types are,

Parallel Reamer: Straight fluted reamer held in a drill press spindle with a tapered shank.

Parallel Hand: Straight flutes, but held in a hand tap wrench.

Taper Reamers: has a taper from one end to the other. These can be used in a spindle (tapered shank), or by hand (for a taper wrench).

Adjustable Reamer: This uses inserted blades.

• Recommended allowances and speeds for reaming [Krar],

 

6.3.2 Boring

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• Boring is used for high quality finished.

 

• In boring the tool can be rotated, or the work can be rotated.

6.3.3 Taps

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• Taps can use for both internal and external threads.

• A typical set of hand taps consists of

#1 Taper

#2 Plug

#3 Bottoming

• There are flutes in the taps to help remove chips, to provide cutting edges, and channels for lubrication.

• There are a number of sets of threads available,

UNC (Unified National Course)

UNF (Unified National Fine)

ACME

Metric

• To create one of these holes, we must first drill a hole that is slightly smaller. For example,

 

• Some setups associated with taps are,

alignment of the tap in a drill press

use of taping attachments

• NF/NC Thread Tap Drill Sizes [Krar],

 

6.4 Drilling Process Parameters

• The parameters for drilling are found in almost the same way as for lathes,

 

• Typical high speed drill speeds are, [Krar]

 

• Consider also the typical feeds for drilling, [Krar]

 

6.4.1 The mrr For Drilling

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• considering the parameters defined in the discussion of speeds and feeds, etc, the mrr is given below,

 

6.5 Problems

Problem 6.1 What would happen if a drill bit without flutes was used?

Problem 6.2 If we want a hole with a 1/2-14-UNC thread, what size of tap drill should be used?

Problem 6.3 What type of drill press is suitable for drilling holes in car engine blocks? Justify your answer.

Problem 6.4 Which of these statements is not correct?

a) work is not moved on a radial arm drill press.

b) automatic feeds are available on sensitive drill presses.

c) multispindle drill presses always drill multiple holes at once.

d) all of the above.

Problem 6.5 Which of these statements is correct?

a) a margin of a drill bit does most of the cutting.

b) the relief angle on the tip of the drill bit makes it not a conical shape.

c) a large drill bit point angle is useful for cutting soft materials.

d) none of the above.

Problem 6.6 Which of the following statements is not correct?

a) core drills have 3 or 4 flutes.

b) high helix drills help in chip removal.

c) straight fluted drills are used for sheet metal.

d) center drills are for long holes, such as gun barrels.

Problem 6.7 Which of the following is not a typical drill press operation?

a) counter boring.

b) spot facing.

c) counter sinking.

d) none of the above.

Problem 6.8 Which of the statements is most correct?

a) reamers are used to finish holes with accuracies not possible when a normal drill is used.

b) adjustable taps will cut a wide variety of threaded holes.

c) taps and reamers can both be used without a machine tool.

d) none of the above.

Problem 6.9 Given a hole that is to be drilled then reamed to 3.000”, develop a process plan including speeds and feeds.

Problem 6.10 We want to drill a hole that is 2.369” in diameter. If we know that the accuracy the shop can provide for drilling is +0.030” to -0.010”,

a) what is an appropriate fractional drill size to use?

b) what operation might follow?

Problem 6.11 Calculate the machine tool spindle speeds for the following,

a) drilling with a 19/32” high speed steel bit in mild steel. The CS is 70 ft./min.

Problem 6.12 We are to drill 6 holes in a 2” thick mild steel plate. The plate is held in a jig. We are using a 63/64” high speed steel drill, and the suggested parameters are CS = 80 ft./min. with a feed of 0.004”/rev. After drilling each hole is to be finished with a 1.0” diameter reamer. If the suggested parameters for the reamer are CS = 80 ft./min. with a feed of 0.010”/rev.,

a) calculate the time to do all of the operations (and make allowances for drill point travel)

b) find the cost to produce 500 parts when each part needs 3 minutes for setup (no operation), labor rates are $25/hr., and overhead is $25/hr.

Problem 6.13 Which of these statements is not correct?

a) work is not moved on a radial arm drill press.

b) automatic feeds are available on sensitive drill presses.

c) multispindle drill presses must always drill multiple holes at once.

d) all of the above.

Answer 6.13 B

Problem 6.14 Which of these statements is correct?

a) a margin of a drill bit does most of the cutting.

b) the relief angle on the tip of the drill bit makes it a conical shape.

c) a large drill bit point angle is useful for cutting soft materials.

d) none of the above.

Answer 6.14 D

Problem 6.15 Which of the following statements is not correct?

a) core drills have a hollow center to remove chips.

b) high helix drills help in chip removal.

c) straight fluted drills are used for sheet metal.

d) center drills are for long holes, such as gun barrels.

Answer 6.15 A or D

Problem 6.16 Which of the following is not a typical drill press operation?

a) counter boring.

b) spot facing.

c) counter sinking.

d) none of the above.

Answer 6.16 D

Problem 6.17 Which of the statements is most correct?

a) reamers are used to finish holes with accuracies not possible when a normal drill is used.

b) adjustable taps will cut a wide variety of threaded holes.

c) taps and reamers can both be used without a machine tool.

d) none of the above.

Answer 6.17 A

Problem 6.18 What are functions of the following parts of a drill bit. a) body, b) web, c) point, d) tang, e) margin, f) flutes, g) body clearance.

Problem 6.19 What are the purposes of the following drill points. a) conventional, b) flat, c) long angle.

Problem 6.20 What applications are the following drill bits well suited to? a) high helix, b) straight flute, c) gun, d) hard steel, e) core, f) oil hole.

Problem 6.21 What will happen if a drill bit has unequal angles on the cutting edges/lips? What if the edges are not of equal length?

Problem 6.22 Why should most holes be started with a center drill?

Problem 6.23 What are the disadvantages of a thick web found on some drills?

Problem 6.24 What is the purpose of pilot holes?

Problem 6.25 What is the main difference between a) threading operations and tapping operations? b) boring and reaming?

Problem 6.26 List 5 ways work can be held in a lathe.

Problem 6.27 Can peripheral and face milling be done with the same cutter? How common is this?

Problem 6.28 Describe the steps in cutting a 3/8-12-UNC taped hole.

Answer 6.28 center drill, drill 1/4”, drill .292”, starting tap, finishing tap

a) Explain the cutting mechanism of a drill bit, and b) suggest the features of a drill bit for cutting a thin piece of sheet metal.

 

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