10.1 LEARNING IN GENERAL
• Some learning strategies are,
10.1.1 Learning Theories
• Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) includes four areas, [Ellsworth, pg. 386]
Concrete Experience (CE): experience based, peer oriented, emphasizes feedback.
Abstract Conceptualization (AC): analytical, oriented towards things and symbols, authority directed impersonal learning situations.
Abstract Experimentation (AE): Active orientation, focused on “doing”, project oriented.
Reflective Observation (RO): Reflective, Observational approach, prefer lecture situations.
• Four levels of learning are suggested [Ellsworth, pg. 388],
Level 1: “Why are we doing this?”
Level 2: Learning the technology
Level 3: Mastering the tools
Level 4: Application of knowledge to problem solving
• Bloom developed a set of six learning objectives. In order these are,
1. Knowledge: list, name, state, define, identify, match, recall
2. Comprehension: discuss, paraphrase, compute, extrapolate, describe, explain, distinguish
3. Application: choose, classify, use, interpret, calculate, relate, demonstrate
4. Analysis: separate, recognize, test, differentiate, solve
5. Synthesis: design, order, develop, create, summarize, combine, propose
6. Evaluation: evaluate, justify, critique, appraise
10.1 Ellsworth, J.H., Education on the Internet, Sams Publishing, 1994.
10.2 ON-LINE LEARNING
• Basic characteristics of on-line education,
fast: immediate connections/delivery in some cases
not scheduled: material can be reviewed and questions answered at any time
location independent: connection from any location, even home
high connectivity: a very large number of people, and information are readily available
individualized: sequence of material, depth of material, additional review, etc. can be adjusted by the student as needed
• Some important concepts when planning on-line courses are,
bring the students into a learning neighborhood.
create appropriate challenges for the content and format.
context for all material must be clearly defined.
set out a clear start and end to the work.
• When creating on-line courses,
identify course goals.
analyze material for suitability, some is not suited to distance, and solutions should be found.
set objectives for modules (if this mode is used).
try to make best use of tools available.
don’t forget support, technical, library, etc.
set up and maintain records of interactions in the class. (comments, discussions, etc.)
set up an ongoing evaluation system, including feedback.
• From the faculty standpoint, factors for success are,
faculty control of the course (ownership)
don’t let technology replace the value of learning
good technical support all round.
10.2 Ellsworth, J.H., Education on the Internet, Sams Publishing, 1994.