• An example of data transfer is a prototype part drawn using CADKEY and then transferred to SmartCAM (via CADL) so that it can generate the NC code to manufacture the part. Finally it is transferred to the milling machine using ‘G-Code’.
STEP and PDES (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data and Product Data Exchange Specification) An attempt to model other attributes of a product, in addition to geometry, such as tolerancing. This is the emerging standard, but it is not widely available yet.
17.2.1 Proprietary “Standard” Formats
17.2.2 Standard Formats
• In the fixed formatted data, there are several sections that must be entered in a highly structured approach. Data must be right justified within the specified column locations, and these locations must occupy the columns between 1 and 80, inclusive. The following is a brief outline of some rules that must be followed in creating the IGES file.
1. Blanks: Blanks are only significant in string constants. A numeric filed of blanks is considered to denote the default value for that field. No blanks are allowed between the beginning of a numeric constant and the end of that constant. Leading blanks in numeric constants are ignored. Blanks between the end of any constant and the delimiter following the constant are not allowed.
2. Numeric Constants: Embedded commas in numeric constants are not permitted. The absolute magnitude of a numeric constant may not exceed the value of , where N is the number of bits used to represent an integer of a real value. Real constants may be double or single precision. Valid integer constants can be expressed as:
3. String Constants: A string constant is defined as an arbitrary sequence of ASCII characters. Blanks, commas, and numbers are treated as characters within the string. String constants are represented in Hollerith notation. This form consists of a non-zero integer constant (i.e. the number of characters in the string), followed immediately by the letter H, followed by the character string. Valid string constants can be expressed as:
4. Sequence numbers: A sequence number is a string of up to seven digits and is used for indexing the lines within the various sections of the IGES file. Sequence numbers begin ar 1, (i.e. 0000001) in each section and continue sequentially without interruption to the end of that section. This is primarily used to indicate the number of physical lines of the particular section, or may be thought of as section line counters. Sequence numbers must be used in each section of the IGES file. These numbers are right justified in the columns 74 to 80. Sequence numbers may have leading zeros (0) or blanks.
• This section identifies whether the IGES file is written as a bit string binary file, or as a “compressed” ASCII file. If this section is ignored, then the default format for the IGES file is ASCII.
• This section of the IGES file is to provide a readable prologue to the file. There must be at least one (1) start record. All records must have the letter “S” in the 73rd column and a sequence number in columns 74 to 80. Information in columns 1 to 72 are ASCII characters. Figure 3
• The global section contains information regarding the IGES pre-processor, and any information that is required by the IGES post-processor. There are 24 parameters that must be entered. These include:
6. View: Specifies the type of entity view desired. This value is a pointer to the directory entry of a view entity (type 410). It can also be a pointer to an associativity instance. A value of zero (0) indicates the entity is displayed with the same characteristics in all views.
7. Transformation matrix: This value is either a pointer to the directory entry of a transformation matrix used in defining this entity, or a zero indicating the identity matrix used in defining this entity, or a zero indicating the identity matrix for rotation (zero rotation) and zero translation.
Subordinate entity switch: indicates if an entity is referenced by another entity in the file. A value if 00 indicates the entity is independent, and not referenced by other entities. A value of 01 indicates the entity is dependent on some other parent entity. A dependent on some other entity. A dependent entity cannot exist without its parent entity.
Entity use flag: indicates the use of the entity. A value of 00 indicates the geometry, 01 indicates annotation (descriptive purposes), 02 indicates an entity used in definition of structures of data, 03 indicates all other used for entities such as defining structural features in the file, 04 indicates logical or positional entities and 05 indicates 2D parametric entities defined by a mathematical parametric equation.
Hierarchy: indicates the relationship between entities in a hierarchical structure and is used to determine which entity’s directory entry attributes should be applied. Applies to line font, view, entity level, blank status, line weight, and color number. A value of 00 indicates all the above directory entry attributes apply to this entity.
12. Line weight number: Denotes the width for which an entity is to be displayed. Largest line thickness is specified in global parameter 16, smallest thickness is specified in global parameter 17. A value of zero (0) indicates the default line weight as specified by the receiving system.
• The structure is a free formatted data entry from columns 1 to 64. Each line of free formatted data consists of the entity type number followed by the parameter data describing the entity. Columns 65 to 72 are reserved for a parameter data index which is an odd number counter, right justified in the field, which begins at the number 1 and progresses in odd increments for each entity entered. Column 73 is reserved for the letter ‘P’ to indicate the data element belongs to the parameter data section. Columns 74 to 80 are reserved for the sequence number. Each line of data corresponds to the entity type as specified in the global section. For example, the first entity element of the global section corresponds to the first line of coordinates in the parameter data section. Each portion of data in the global section is matched with its coordinate counterpart in the parameter data section.
• This section provides information needed by the post-processor to properly signal the end of the IGES file. The information that is relayed to the receiving system is the number of lines in each of the sections of the IGES file.
17.2.3 A DXF File