• The properties of sheet metal determine how well it can be stretched or bent.


• The various properties include,

- Formability - a larger strain rate exponent ‘n’ relates to longer deformation

- Uniform Necking - the higher the strain rate sensitivity ‘m’, the less localized the necking

- Uniform Elongation - when the yield point has upper and lower points the material may deform in bands - giving long depressions in work surface called Leuder’s bands. These may occur in low carbon steels and aluminum/magnesium alloys.

- Anisotropy - if the material properties have no directionality deformation will be even.

- Small Grains - finer grains are preferred for better metal properties and surface finish.