• In criminal cases there are claims of violations of the criminal code that the Accused is answering. The Crown is responsible for seeking guilty verdicts.


• The crown must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused is completely guilty.


• criminal courts have three options for decisions,

- innocent

- guilty

- hung


• if found guilty, sentences are set. these are set with the following principles,

- rehabilitation of the individual

- protection of the public

- specific and general deterrents


• victims are allowed to influence sentencing with victim impact statements.



1.8.1 A Duty of Honesty


• dishonesty in business dealings can lead to criminal convictions for,

- fraud

- bribes (giving or taking)

- undisclosed conflict of interest

- gifts to government employees that you have business dealings with


• Other areas of interest are,

- the income tax act

- combines investigations act

- etc.



1.8.2 The Combines Investigations Act


• Generally this act tries to dissuade,

- monopolies

- misleading advertising - knowingly making any statements about a product that are not true or based on fact.

- bid rigging - different bidders must not work together to artificially raise the price, or cause bidders to drop out.

- price fixing

- conspiracy to limit competition - hoard resources, reduce production, or work together to reduce competition.

- etc.


• trade associations are permitted but must avoid any actions that would reduce competition in,

- prices

- quality

- quantity

- markets/customers

- distribution




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