• Some methods have already been identified for supporting concurrent engineering,

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Axiomatic Design - This topic applies methods such a Nam Suh’s theories so that production costs, and problems can be eliminated in the design stage by following the rules. An example of an axiom would be “Everything being equal, conserve materials”.


Design For Manufacturing (DFM) guidelines - Methods which focus on rules for simplifying manufacturing in general. An example of one of these rules is “Use known and proven vendors and suppliers”.


Design For Assembly (DFA) - A method for evaluating whether designs may be assembled quickly, and effectively. An example is “Use tapers to align parts which must be mated”.


Taguchi Methods - Experimental methods for determining sensitivity of design factors to change. This allows designs to be made less sensitive to variations in the production process.


Group Technology - A number is given to a part. The number tends to identify what the part is. Similar parts will have similar numbers. As a result it becomes easy to use similar designs, and process plans. The use of standards allows problems discovered before to be considered.


Failure-Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) - Estimates of failures, and possible outcomes can be examined before the part ever reaches production, and provisions may be made in the design phase.


Value Engineering - During the design stage, an attempt is made to evaluate all of the parts in a design, and decide what their value to the customer is. Financial costs are also considered. This allows a picture of how good the design is before the customer gets it.


Simulation - Simulation is an important aspect of product evaluation. If a production facility does not exist, or a new technology is being used, simulation allows evaluation of production times, costs, efficiencies, and problems, before any equipment is purchased, or designs are finalized. This overlaps with some elements of CAE. For example a simulation of cooling of plastics in an injection mold allow consideration of production problems.


• The advantages of the various tools can be any of the following,

- Optimize design satisfaction of customer requirements

- Simplify designs

- Ensure manufacturability

- Optimize production ease and cost.