Axiomatic Design - This topic applies methods such a Nam Suh’s theories so that production costs, and problems can be eliminated in the design stage by following the rules. An example of an axiom would be “Everything being equal, conserve materials”.
Group Technology - A number is given to a part. The number tends to identify what the part is. Similar parts will have similar numbers. As a result it becomes easy to use similar designs, and process plans. The use of standards allows problems discovered before to be considered.
Value Engineering - During the design stage, an attempt is made to evaluate all of the parts in a design, and decide what their value to the customer is. Financial costs are also considered. This allows a picture of how good the design is before the customer gets it.
Simulation - Simulation is an important aspect of product evaluation. If a production facility does not exist, or a new technology is being used, simulation allows evaluation of production times, costs, efficiencies, and problems, before any equipment is purchased, or designs are finalized. This overlaps with some elements of CAE. For example a simulation of cooling of plastics in an injection mold allow consideration of production problems.