• Management differs from administration in that it sets a new course working on the policy making level - administration follows policy. There are many levels of administration and management.


• Questions that a manager will consider before putting together a design activity include,

- Is the design for a small batch or mass production? smaller batches don’t require as much effort in refining the design. The design cost becomes a significant part of the final cost.

- Is the design an improvement or redesign of an existing product, or is it new? Product improvement/variation can be done with minimal technical effort. The amount of technical effort increases dramatically as we go to a new design.

- What design functions are anticipated? This determines the types of roles on a design team. (These are listed in approximate order of responsibility and authority). Note: All of these roles are important in a successful design. There should be people assigned to each explicitly.

1. Marketing/Product manager - makes major market/customer decisions

1. Design Engineer - Makes major technical decisions an assesses results

2. Manufacturing engineer - makes decisions about production of product

2. Designer/Engineer - does detailed design work based on major decisions

3. Quality control engineer - evaluates quality problems and opportunities

3. Materials specialist - selects materials

3. Industrial designer - makes aesthetic decisions (typically an artist)

4. Drafter - completes drawings of parts

4. Technician - builds, tests, evaluates product

4. Vendor/Supplier Representative - a product manager from another company

- How does the design naturally break into manageable parts? The team can be constant members in a static structure, or can have shifting responsibility and structure. An innovative design must allow more freedom and a dynamic structure. A well defined design should be use a clear structure and set of tasks.

- How much time does the design require? Based on experience and some calculations a manager can set milestones for a design team. Typical tasks might include,

- set specifications

- generate concepts

- test concepts with prototype/simulation

- do detailed design

- build full prototype

- test and evaluate prototype

- plan for tooling and production

- test runs

- full runs


• A manager will tend to follow a set of steps when planning,