• Modeling

• Explicit solutions

• Numerical solutions

• Empirical data

• Simulation

• Lumped parameter (masses and springs)

• Distributed parameters (stress in a solid)

• Continuous vs. Discrete

• Linear vs. Non-linear

• linearity and superposition

• reversibility

• through and across variables

• Analog vs. Digital

• process vs. controllers

• Basic system categories below,


Figure 1.1 Model Classifications

• control system types: servo vs. regulating/process control

• open loop vs. closed loop

• disturbances

• component variations

• system error

• analysis vs. design

• mechatronics

• embedded systems

• real-time systems

- Basic control problem types,

Tracking (noisy time variant) - test with ramp and disturbance

temperature control

tension/torque control


Timing (confliciting objectives and constraints) - test with step

servo control

crane position control

Human Factors (not exact/does not fit LTI) - fuzzy logic

speed control


Interpolation (MIMO system)

multistage setpoint generation


Classification (not easily described/understood)

pattern recognition