The continuous actuators discussed earlier in the chapter are the more common types. For the purposes of completeness additional actuators are listed and described briefly below.

Heaters - to control a heater with a continuous temperature a PWM scheme can be used to limit a DC voltage, or an SCR can be used to supply part of an AC waveform.

Pneumatics - air controlled systems can be used for positioning with suitable feedback. Velocities can also be controlled using fast acting valves.

Linear Motors - a linear motor works on the same principles as a normal rotary motor. The primary difference is that they have a limited travel and their cost is typically much higher than other linear actuators.

Ball Screws - rotation is converted to linear motion using balls screws. These are low friction screws that drive nuts filled with ball bearings. These are normally used with slides to bear mechanical loads.

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