• Selection of continuous sensors must include issues such as accuracy and resolution.

• Angular positions can be measured with potentiometers and encoders (more accurate).

• Tachometers are useful for measuring angular velocity.

• Linear positions can be measured with potentiometers (limited accuracy), LVDTs (limited range), moire fringes (high accuracy).

• Accelerometers measure acceleration of masses.

• Strain gauges and piezoelectric elements measure force.

• Pressure can be measured indirectly with bellows and Bourdon tubes.

• Flow rates can be measured with Venturi valves and pitot tubes.

• Temperatures can be measured with RTDs, thermocouples, and thermistors.

• Input signals can be single ended for more inputs or double ended for more accuracy.

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