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12.4 Vectors

• When dealing with large and/or time varying objects or phenomenon we must be able to describe the state at locations, and as a whole. To do this vectors are a very useful tool.

• Consider a basic function and how it may be represented with partial derivatives.

• Gauss’s or Green’s or divergence theorem is given below. Both sides give the flux across a surface, or out of a volume. This is very useful for dealing with magnetic fields.

• Stoke’s theorem is given below. Both sides give the flux across a surface, or out of a volume. This is very useful for dealing with magnetic fields.