PROCESS MODELING

There are many process modeling techniques, but only a few are suited to process control. The ANSI/ISA-S5.1-1984 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) standard provides good tools for documenting processes. The symbols used on the diagrams are shown in Figure 30.1 Symbols for Functions and Instruments. Note that the modifier used for the instruments can be applied to other discrete devices.

 

Figure 30.1 Symbols for Functions and Instruments

The process model is carefully labeled to indicate the function of each of the function on the diagram. Table 2 shows a list of the different instrumentation letter codes.

Table 1: ANSI/ISA-S5.1-1984 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification

LETTER

FIRST LETTER

SECOND LETTER

A

Analysis

Alarm

B

Burner, Combustion

User’s Choice

C

User’s Choice

Control

D

User’s Choice

 

E

Voltage

Sensor (Primary Element)

F

Flow Rate

 

G

User’s Choice

Glass (Sight Tube)

H

Hand (Manually Initiated)

 

I

Current (Electric)

Indicate

J

Power

 

K

Time or Time Schedule

Control Station

L

Level

Light (pilot)

M

User’s Choice

 

N

User’s Choice

User’s Choice

O

User’s Choice

Orifice, Restriction

P

Pressure, Vacuum

Point (Test Connection)

Q

Quantity

 

R

Radiation

Record or Print

S

Speed or Frequency

Switch

T

Temperature

Transmit

U

Multivariable

Multifunction

V

Vibration, Mechanical Analysis

Valve, Damper, Louver

W

Weight, Force

Well

X

Unclassified

Unclassified

Y

Event, State or Presence

Relay, Compute

Z

Position, Dimension

Driver, Actuator, Unclassified

The line symbols also describe the type of flow. Figure 30.2 Flow Line Symbols and Types shows a few of the popular flow lines.

 

Figure 30.2 Flow Line Symbols and Types

Figure 30.3 Sensor and Actuator Symbols and Types shows some of the more popular sensor and actuator symbols.

 

Figure 30.3 Sensor and Actuator Symbols and Types

[an error occurred while processing this directive]