1. These networks allow us to pass data between devices so that individually controlled systems can be integrated into a more complex manufacturing facility. An example might be a serial connection to a PLC so that SPC data can be collected as product is made, or recipes downloaded as they are needed.




4. Controlnet, Profibus, Ethernet with multiple subnets

5 the maximum transfer rate is 230 Kbps, with 11 bits per byte (1start+8data+2+stop) for 20909 bytes per second. Each memory write packet contains 17 overhead bytes, and as many as 2000 data bytes. Therefore as many as 20909*2000/(2000+17) = 20732 bytes could be transmitted per second. Note that this is ideal, the actual maximum rates would be actually be a fraction of this value.

6. The OSI model is just a model, so it can be used to describe parts of systems, and what their functions are. When used to describe actual networking hardware and software, the parts may only apply to one or two layers. Some parts may implement all of the layers in the model.

7. When more than one client tries to start talking simultaneously on a bus network they interfere, this is called a collision. When this occurs they both stop, and will wait a period of time before starting again. If they both wait different amounts of time the next one to start talking will get priority, and the other will have to wait. With CSMA/CD the clients wait a random amount of time. With CSMA/BA the clients wait based upon their network address, so their priority is related to their network address. Other networking methods prevent collisions by limiting communications. Master-slave networks require that client do not less talk, unless they are responding to a request from a master machine. Token passing only permits the holder of the token to talk.


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